Manganese is an activator of enzyme systems in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fats, protein and nucleic acids.
Manganese also has a vital role in reproduction, cholesterol synthesis.
Manganese is also required for synthesis of the steroids, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Insufficient steroid production results in decreased circulating concentrations of these reproductive hormones resulting in abnormal sperm in males and irregular estrus cycles in females.
MANGANESE IN RUMINANT NUTRITION
Manganese is an essential dietary element for ruminants. Ruminants have an effective homeostatic control for Manganese levels in blood and tissues. Manganese retention by the animal depends on the amount excreted from the bile into the intestine. High dietary Ca levels reduce the availability of Manganese in cattle. Deficiencies in manganese are reflected in reduced growth, skeletal deformities, poor fertility and birth defects in newborn calves.
MANGANESE IN POULTRY NUTRITION
Manganese plays a significant role in the chicken’s body in the formation of chondroitin sulfate. This mucopolysaccharide is an important component of bone cartilage. Deficiencies of manganese in poultry will result in perosis, bone shortening and bowing and in poor eggshell quality in laying hens.
MANGANESE IN SWINE NUTRITION
Manganese is important in enzyme production and the development of bone. It is also required for normal reproductive function. Deficiencies are reported to be associated with lameness, irregular oestrus, delayed sexual maturity and weak pigs at birth.
MANGANESE IN AQUA NUTRITION
Research shows that optimal trace mineral nutrition is one path to improve production. Fish, shrimp and other aquatic species require trace minerals such as zinc, manganese, copper, iron and selenium for basic metabolic functions, such as growth and development, immunity and reproduction. To be efficient, competitive and profitable, farms need to get products to market with weight gain quickly as well as good feed conversion, high uniformity, immunity and healthy skin or scales.